A lithium battery is a battery made of lithium metal or lithium alloy as a negative electrode and using nonaqueous electrolyte solutions. In 1912, lithium metal batteries were first proposed and studied by Gilbert N. Lewis. In 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium ion batteries. Because of the chemical properties of lithium metal is very lively, making lithium metal processing, preservation and use of environmental requirements are very high. Therefore, lithium batteries have not been used for a long time. With the development of science and technology, lithium battery has become the mainstream now.
Lithium batteries can be broadly divided into two categories: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries do not contain lithium in metallic form and are rechargeable. The fifth generation of rechargeable battery, lithium metal battery, was born in 1996. Its safety, specific capacity, self discharge rate and performance price ratio are better than that of lithium ion battery. Because of its own high-tech requirements, only a few companies are now producing this lithium metal battery.